Who Conquered Bursa, Osman Or Orhan?
One of the oldest arguments relating to Bursa’s conquerors is who was more generous, Osman or Orhan? The question remains, who was more generous and kind to the people? We will consider the relationship between the Sultans of Bursa and their two long-lived future sons. Read this article to learn more. And don’t forget to check out this article by Fehime Sultan on who was more generous with the people of Bursa.
Mehmed Tevfik Bey
Mehmed Tevfik BeY’s conquest of Bursa marked a turning point in the history of the Ottoman Empire. The capture of Bursa marked the end of the reign of Osman Gazi. Osman’s son Orhan, the second Ottoman sultan, had been born in the same year as his elder brother. Upon his birth, Osman advised his elder brother to strike coins in his name and wear distinctive clothing to distinguish himself. He also advised his brother to gather an army of infantry soldiers paid from the treasury.
Mehmed Tevfik BeY was the governor of Bursa from 1906 to 1909. He became friendly with Fehime Sultan, the daughter of Sultan Murad V (1876). He invited her three sisters to live in his house until they could find a permanent residence. In the meantime, Kemaleddin Bey’s regime was crumbling and Mehmed Tevfik Bey’s reign began.
The city was the Ottoman capital for 35 years, until Mehmed was succeeded by his son, Murad.
‘Mehmed Tevfik Bey’s sons, Orhan and Suleyman, competed for the right to rule the Ottoman empire. Suleyman established a capital in Edirne and gained the support of Christian vassals and those who encouraged Bayezid to move towards conquest in the East. Moreover, the descendants of Turkmen notables were also supportive of Mehmed’s claim.
Mehmed Tevfik BeY’s conquest of Bursa was successful and the city’s economy thrived. Agriculture, dairy products, olives, gemlik, and mulberry trees were the main sources of wealth for the city. Because of the abundance of mulberry trees in the area, Bursa became a centre for silk production.
The city’s diversity reflected the influx of migrants over the centuries. In the sixteenth century, a wave of Turks from Central Asia poured into the city, doubled the city’s population from 1530 to 1575. In the late nineteenth century, Greek villages dotted the city, mainly in the Setbasi area. In 1784, a newspaper in Bursa’s Armenian language was published.
Mehmed Tevfik BeY’s conquest of Bursa Osman or Orhan also left behind a rich cultural heritage. Among the mosques, the Muradiye Mosque, a three-balcony minaret structure, is one of the most renowned examples of Ottoman architecture.
In the early nineteenth century, Mehmed Tevfik BeY began minting his own coins. His brother had encouraged him to mint his own coins, and it took the Sultan several years to follow his example. After Orhan Gazi conquered Bursa, he introduced white-colored uniforms for soldiers and introduced a system of guilds.
Mehmed Tevfik Bey’s kindness to three sisters
The three sisters lived in the house of Mehmed Tevfik Bei during the time that Mehmed Tevfik Behy was governor of Bursa, from 1906 until 1908. As governor of Bursa, he showed kindness and generosity to his neighbors. He invited the three sisters, who had come to the city from Germany, to live with him in his house until they found a permanent residence.
The incident was recorded in Bursa court records. In fact, the story of Mehmed Tevfik Bey’s kindness to three sisters in Bursa is a famous one. The sisters were deprived of education and social status in their own town because of this incident. The three sisters’ names were Osman, Orhan and Sevgi.
After Mehmed Tevfik Behy’s victory in Bursa, Osman Gazi fell ill and could no longer fight. He gave his son Orhan Gazi the task of taking Bursa. In 1317, he first conquered Evrenos Fortress. In the same year, he appointed his nephew Ak Timur as the commander of the fort. Orhan Gazi gave his slave Balabancik command of another fort in the mountains behind Bursa. The two Ottomans cut off the city’s access to the city and made their encampment in Pinarbasi. Then, they returned to Yenikent.
The Yesil Mosque is one of the most important Ottoman period structures in Bursa.
The mosque was built in the late 14th century during the Murat II period. Its tiles and green turquoise adornments are a striking feature of this mosque. The architect of this mosque was Haci Ivaz Pasa.
Textiles were the main economic activity in the Ottoman Empire. At one point, the city was the textile center of the Ottoman Empire. There were fourteen textile mills in Bursa in the early 1850s, two of which were in Mudanya, each with 150 to 200 looms for weaving tulle, mulberry, and mixed silk fabrics.
Mehmed Tevfik Bey’s friendship with Fehime Sultan
The friendship between Mehmed Tevfik Beh and Fehime Sultan dates back to the early 16th century. Mehmed, the son of Murad V, was the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire to die while in office. Mehmed married several consorts, including Fehime Sultan, and had at least two sons with each. The eldest, Sultan V, was deposed in 1922. His son, Sultan V, was born in 1886, and his second marriage to Fehime Sultan in 1921 ended in divorce. The two Sultans were friends for a long time, but their relationship was troubled and strained.
Mehmed Tevfik BeY became the governor of Bursa, Turkey, between 1906 and 1909.’
He was friendly with the three daughters of the late Sultan Murad V. When Fehime Sultan was young, Mehmed Tevfik Bey invited the three daughters to live in his house until they found a permanent residence. However, Mehmed Tevfik Bey’s friendship with Fehime Sultan lasted for decades.
Behice Sultan was a child orphan who contracted tuberculosis during childhood. Behice lived in solitary quarters, writing letters to her sisters to cheer her up. At the age of twenty, Behice was in a hurry to marry and pushed for a betrothal. Her father, Abdulaziz, chose Halil Hamid Pasazade Hamid Bey for her dowry. He was a good-looking man who would marry her.
While Mehmed Tevfik Behy’s friendship with Fehime Sultan was not well-known at the time, they remained close friends throughout their lives. During the Second Constitutional Monarchy, the CUP grew in power, and Mehmed Tevfik Bey’s closeness to Fehime Sultan continued to be evident in his memoirs.
As the Caliph, Abdulmecid Efendi, a son of Bedrifelek Peyveste, was a talented musician. He played piano, cello, and mandolin. He later married Princess Emine Hanimefendi of Egypt and had a daughter with her. His death in 1953 was a traumatic event in Turkish history.
Fatma Sultan, a third-generation woman of Mehmed Tevfik Be’s family, was the eldest daughter of Mehmed V and was his favorite sister. She had two husbands, and they were very close, but they divorced in 1852. She died in her palace in Istanbul. She was buried alongside her father and the first husband of her mother.